Health inequalities of smoking between smokers and non smokers are fairly pronounced with smokers likely to suffer from major health complications in comparison to those who do not smoke. People who do not smoke are less vulnerable to terminal diseases and other ailments that can be a source of great distress to smokers. It has been observed that smokers belonging to the lower social group or with low income or low levels of education have a two-fold increased risk of dying earlier.
People who smoke are at an enhanced risk of cerebrovascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm along with peripheral vascular diseases in comparison to those who do not smoke.
More About Health Inequalities Caused by Smoking
- Cigarette smoking enhances the period of ischemia in patients with coronary heart diseases. It also increases the frequency of ischemic attacks in patients unlike in people who do not smoke.
- Smoking is also responsible for adversely impacting HDL or good cholesterol.
- Cigarette smoke which people inhale also consists of substances that cause direct damage to the lung tissue thus, diminishing their capability to absorb oxygen.
- Substances discharged by the immune system as a reaction to cigarette smoke also damage the lung cells.
- People who smoke experience irritation to the bronchial tree in the lungs, resulting in the formation of excessive mucus and giving rise to the characteristic smokers’ cough. However this condition is non-existent in people who choose to refrain from smoking.
- People who smoke are likely to be afflicted with bronchitis and emphysema.
- Smoking has an adverse impact on blood vessels resulting in vasoconstriction. It also enhances the threat for the development of large vessel peripheral vascular disease and inflammation of veins. This is triggered by means of smoking induced atherosclerosis and vasoconstriction. These conditions are aggravated by ailments for example diabetes.
- Smoking leads to the deposition of fatty deposits in the blood vessels which is referred to as atherosclerosis. The flow of blood slows down which in the process can give rise to thrombus formation and can lead to stroke.
- Smokers are at a greater threat from strokes than non-smokers. The danger of stroke depends on the number of cigarettes a person smokes. The greater number of cigarettes a person smokes the more he is vulnerable to the dangers of stroke.
- Habitual smokers frequently develop a continual gruff voice. It occasionally may develop a harmless growth in the voice cords referred to as vocal cord polyps which might require a surgery for removal.
- Smoking augments the threat of erectile dysfunction since the flow of blood into the penis is obstructed by atherosclerosis. People who smoke tend to have abnormal sperm form, damaged sperm motility, diminished number of sperms and decreased volume of ejaculation.
It has been found that health inequalities are significant between smokers engaged in manual jobs in contrast to people in non manual jobs. People in the manual sector smoke more heavily than persons employed in the non manual sector. These result in greater health hazards to people involved with manual jobs.